Server Core

Server Core is a minimal server installation option for computers running on the operating system. Server Core provides a low-maintenance server environment with limited functionality.

Core_Installation_1

Before with Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008, there was no way to convert to a full installation or a Server Core installation without completely reinstalling the operating system.

In Windows Server 2012, an administrator now has the ability to convert between a Server Core installation and a full installation (Server with a GUI) as needed.

If you are using server with a GUI you can use the server manager, “Remove Roles and Features Wizard” to switch to Server Core Installation.

Core_Installation

In Windows Server 2012, a large investment in Server Core capabilities was made to increase deployment flexibility and also bring Server Core support to more server roles. The following roles are supported in Server Core installation:

  • Active Directory Certificate Services
  • Active Directory Domain Services
  • DHCP Server
  • DNS Server
  • File Services (including File Server Resource Manager)
  • Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS)
  • Hyper-V
  • Print and Document Services
  • Streaming Media Services
  • Web Server (including a subset of ASP.NET)
  • Windows Server Update Server
  • Active Directory Rights Management Server
  • Routing and Remote Access Server and the following sub-roles:
    • Remote Desktop Services Connection Broker
    • Licensing
    • Virtualization

Benefit of Server Core

Reduced Servicing: Because Server Core installs only what is required for a manageable DHCP, File, DNS, Media Services, and Active Directory server, less servicing is required.

Reduced Management: Because less is installed on a Server Core-based server, less management is required.

Reduced attack surface: Because there is less running on the server, there is less attack surface.

Server Core limitations

There is no Windows shell and very limited GUI functionality.

There is limited MSI support (unattended mode only).

Installation Options

When you install Windows Server 2012, Server Core installation is the default. However you can choose between Server Core Installation and Server with a GUI.

Because you can freely switch between these options at any time later, one approach might be to initially install the Server with a GUI option, use the graphical tools to configure the server, and then later switch to the Server Core Installation option.

An intermediate state is possible where you start with a Server with a GUI installation and then remove Server Graphical Shell, resulting in a server that comprises the “Minimal Server Interface,” Microsoft Management Console (MMC), Server Manager, and a subset of Control Panel.

A server in Minimal Server Interface mode is about 300 MB smaller than the same server in Server with a GUI mode. A server in Server Core mode is about 4 GB smaller than the same server in Server with a GUI mode.

Additionally, you can install the Desktop Experience feature which enables you to install a variety of Windows 8 features on your server running Windows Server 2012. If you use Windows Server 2012 as your primary operating system, you might want to have some of these Windows 8 features available for your daily use.

Core_Installation_9

If you are using Server Core Installation to swith to Server with a GUI do:

First Open PowerShell
Core_Installation_5

You can switch to Server with a GUI using the following PowerShell cmdlet:
Install-WindowsFeature Server-Gui-Mgmt-Infra, Server-Gui-Shell
Core_Installation_6

Core_Installation_7

Core_Installation_8

If you are using Server with a GUI you can switch to Server Core Installation using the Remove Roles and Features Wizard

or with the following PowerShell cmdlet:

Uninstall-WindowsFeature Server-Gui-Mgmt-Infra, Server-Gui-Shell

Installation options table
Core_Installation_10

Features available locally depending on which installation option you use:
Core_Installation_11

 

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